Rabu, 19 Desember 2007

Land Cruiser

Toyota Land Cruiser

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Toyota Land Cruiser
2007 Toyota Land Cruiser
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1951–present
Class Off-road vehicle (1951–present)
4-door SUV (1954-present)

The Toyota Land Cruiser is a popular series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese carmaker Toyota Motor Corporation. The Land Cruiser, along with the Hilux utility, has been used in the world's most grueling terrains and climates. Design of the Land Cruiser began in 1951 as a Toyota Jeep-like vehicle and production began in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in many different versions such as the convertible, hardtop, station wagon and utility. In many places, the term Land Cruiser has even become a generic term for an off-road vehicle.


Prehistory (1940–1945)

The AK10 used the 2259 cc Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and postwar Toyota Jeep BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the US Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.

In 1941 the Japanese Imperial Army occupied the Philippines, where they obtained a Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota that they make a similar vehicle. There was an order from them, "do not to model the appearance of a prototype on a US Jeep" too. The prototype called Model AK was adopted Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha ( 小型貨物 The Imperial era 2604th model compact cargo-truck ) formally by The Japanese Imperial Army.

In 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a 1/2 ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP prototype. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights that were mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator, and a folding windshield. Though the US Army Jeep arrived in the Pacific in May 1943.

First generation - Model BJ and FJ (1951–1955)

First generation
Production 1951-1955
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
Layout FR layout
Wheelbase 2650 mm (104.3 in)
  • 1950 - The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
  • 1951 - The Toyota Jeep BJ prototype was born in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4-liter six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine generated 85 hp at 3600 rpm and 215 Nm torque at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case.
  • 1951 - In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mt. Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.
  • 1953 - Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.). The "Toyota Jeep" Series was introduced alongside the BJ-T (Touring), BJ-R ( Radio ), BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine with Type B gasoline engine), and later FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine with Type F gasoline engine).
  • 1954 - The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor - Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls.
    125 hp, 3.9-liter Type F gasoline engine for a fire-engine, was added.

20 Series (1955–1960)

Third generation - 20 Series
Production 1960-1984
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station Wagon
Layout FR layout
Wheelbase 2710 mm (106.7 in)
  • 1955 - The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. Under the hood it sported a more powerful 3.9-liter six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm forward. The 20 Series still had no low range but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears.
  • 1958 - The first Station wagon Land Cruiser was introduced with an even longer 2650 mm wheelbase (the FJ35V; wagon and van). The FJ-25 production started in Brazil being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.
  • 1959 - The first Toyota vehicles were exported to Australia initially for use in mines, dam construction spot, and snowy areas. 4-door Station Wagon, FJ35V was added.

40 Series (1960–1984)

Third generation - 40 Series
Toyota Land Cruiser (BJ40LV)
Production 1970-1983
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station Wagon
Layout FR layout
1981 Land Cruiser Troop Carrier
1981 Land Cruiser Troop Carrier
  • 1960 - The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 125 hp, 3.9 liter Type F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz built Diesel engine generating 78 hp.
  • 1965 - Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles. The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.
  • 1968 - The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1972 - The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1973 - The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide. The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models and it had a six-cylinder H engine.
  • 1974 - A four-cylinder 3.0-liter B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than it's 3.9-liter gasoline version.
  • 1975 - The 3.9-liter gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2-liter 2F unit. The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
  • 1976 - United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55. The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
  • 1977 - The Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
  • 1978 - The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in Germany with both diesel (BJ40) petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
  • 1979 - United States-version FJ40's were updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights. Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time. The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2-liter 2B only in Japan.

Model 55 and 56 (1972–1980)

Fourth generation - Model 55 and 56
Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ55LG)
Production 1972-1980
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door stationwagon
Layout Front engine four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.9L 125 ~ 155 hp F petrol I6, 4.2L 135 ~ 155 hp 2F petrol I6
Transmission(s) 3 or 4-speed manual (J30, H41 or H42)
Wheelbase 2710 mm (106.7 in)
Width 1710 mm (67.3 in)
  • 1967 - Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a pig or an iron pig. The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2710 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
  • Model 56 is in Japan only, with 2F engine ( Jan. 1975 - Jul. 1980 ).

60 Series (1980–1990)

Fifth generation - 60 Series
Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62LG)
Production 1980-1990
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door stationwagon
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 4.0L 154 hp I6, 4.2L 135 hp 2F petrol* I6, 4L 144 hp 3F petrol* I6, 4L 102 hp 2H diesel* I6, 4L 136 hp 12H-T turbo-diesel* I6 (* Japanese, Australian, and Euro models)
Transmission(s) 4-speed manual (H41F or H42F), 4-speed automatic, and in non-U.S. models, a 5-speed (5th overdrive) upgrade (H55F)
Wheelbase 2730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1750 mm (68.9 in)
  • 1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 litre 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 litre 3B diesel engines were added to the product line.
  • 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana.
  • 1984 - This was the final year for the 40. Specialist suppliers of aftermarket parts and restorers who return old FJ40s to better-than-new condition replace Toyota dealers as the main source of Land Cruiser expertise.
  • 1984 - Alongside the 60, the Toyota LandCruiser 70 Series were introduced. 70Heavy as a soft-top, hard-top, FRPtop, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats).The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0-litre 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version of the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4-litre gasoline engine, 2L and 2L-T ( turbo ) 2.4-litre diesel engines. The 70 Light was sold in some markets as the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the 90. An automatic transmission (A440F) was introduced making it the first four-wheel drive Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission.
  • 1985 - The Direct-injection 12H-T and 13B-T turbo diesel engine were introduced.
  • 1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.
  • 1990 - The 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60. The 80 was initially offered with a choice of three engines; the 3F-E six-cylinder petrol engine, a six-cylinder the 1 Hz diesel and 1HD-T direct injection turbo-diesel.
  • 1990 - All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.

70 Series (1985–present)

Sixth generation - 70 Series
Toyota Land Cruiser "Troopie" (HZJ75LV)
Production 1984-Present
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door pickup truck
2-door softtop / hardtop / troopie
4-door van
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 4.2L 135 hp 1HZ petrol* I6,(* Japanese, Australian, and Euro models)
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2980 mm (117.3 in)
Length 4995 mm (196.7 in)
Width 1415 mm (55.7 in)
Height 2070 mm (81.5 in)
Fuel capacity 1 or 2 90 liters tanks each
BJ73VMiddle FRP-top 3.4D LX( Japan spec )
Middle FRP-top 3.4D LX
( Japan spec )
HZJ76HVFour-door semi-long van 4.2D LX( Japan spec )
Four-door semi-long van 4.2D LX
( Japan spec )
HZJ75LVTroop Carrier 4.2D
Troop Carrier 4.2D
HZJ75LVTroop Carrier 4.2D
Troop Carrier 4.2D
HZJ75RCab-chassis 4.2D
Cab-chassis 4.2D
  • 1984 - "70" Series was introduced.
  • 1990 - New-generation diesel engines were introduced including a five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1PZ),and a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 Hz).
  • 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced.
  • 2002 - HDJ79 is introduced to Australia with the 1HD-FTE 4.2-litre six-cylinder 24-valve turbo-diesel EFI engine.

80 Series (1990–1997)

Seventh generation - 80 Series
Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ80LG)
Also called Lexus LX
Production 1990-1997
Assembly ARACO
Toyota,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 4.5L 212 hp I6
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4780 mm (188.2 in) (1990-94)
4820 mm (189.8 in) (1995-97)
Width 1830 mm (72 in) (1990-91)
1930 mm (76 in) (1992-97)
Height 1785 mm (70.3 in) (1990-91)
1870 mm (73.6 in) (1995-97)
1860 mm (73.2 in) (1992-94)
Related Lexus LX450
A 80 Series Land CruiserWith swing-out back-doors( Model HZJ81V )
A 80 Series Land Cruiser
With swing-out back-doors
( Model HZJ81V )
  • 1990 - New-generation diesel engines were introduced, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 Hz) , and a six-cylinder SOHC turbo-charged engine (1HD-T). Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles. The 80 was introduced to the Australian market with two diesel and four litre inline six-cylinder petrol carb engine. (derived from the eairler 2F petrol motor from the 60 series.)
  • 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer.

Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option.

  • 1995 - Driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero").
  • 1996 - In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class.

All American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. alongside the 70, the 90 Prado was added. The 90 Prado was made by Tahara Plant, available as a 3-door short wheelbase and 5-door long wheelbase version with either the 5VZ-FE petrol engine (24-valve six-cylinder, 3.4-litre), the 3RZ-FS (four-cylinder 2.7-litre) petrol engine or the 1KZ-TE turbo-diesel (four-cylinder 3.0-litre) and 5L diesel(four-cylinder 3.0-litre).

  • 1997- A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging and special black sidelines and grilles. The Collectors Edition was only available for the 1997 model year, in either Black or Pearl White.

100 Series (1998-2007)

Eighth Generation - 100 Series Station Wagon
2005 Toyota Land Cruiser Cygnus (Japan)
Also called Lexus LX
Production 1998-2007
Assembly ARACO
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Engine(s) 4.7 V8 238 hp[Petrol] 4.2 I6 196hp [Diesel]
Transmission(s) 6-speed manual, 5-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2790 mm (109.8 in)
Length 4715 mm (185.6 in)
Width 1875 mm (73.8 in)
Height 1905 mm (75 in)
Curb weight 4 122-4 321 lb
Fuel capacity 21.1 US gallons
  • 1998 - Toyota introduced the 100 Land Cruiser to replace the 80. At launch the UZJ100 featured the first eight-cylinder engine (4.7-litre 32-valve 2UZ-FE petrol engine) in a Toyota four wheel drive. The Land Cruiser won Australian 4WD Monthly's "4x4 Of The Year" award for the third time in a row.
  • 1999 - Toyota updated the 70 with a coil-spring front solid-axle.
  • 2000 - 50th Anniversary of the Land Cruiser. Total global production to date is 3.72 million vehicles. 90 Prados get active traction control (Active TRAC), vehicle skid control equipment (VSC), and electronic brake force distribution (EBD) systems as standard equipment in some markets.
  • 2002 - All new 120 Prado is released and the 100 is restyled. The centre of gravity was reduced by 30 mm, ensuring better stability and dual fuel tanks with a total capacity of 180 L in the new 120 Prado. Downhill Assist Control and Hill-start Assist Control enhance the vehicle's stability under difficult off-road conditions.
  • 2007 - Toyota unveils the Lexus LX570 URJ-200 at the 2007 New York Auto Show. Toyota's first turbo-diesel V8 engine, the 1VD-FTV was released for the new 70-series Land Cruiser in Australia.

200 Series (2008–future)

Ninth generation - 200 Series Station Wagon
2007 Toyota Land Cruiser
Production 2008-
Assembly Toyota Auto body
Yoshiwara,Aichi, Japan
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 5.7L 381 hp Dual VVTi V8 Petrol
4.7L 286 hp VVTi V8 Petrol
4.5L 263 hp D-4D V8 Diesel 4.0L 240 hp DOHC with VVT-i Petrol
Transmission(s) 6-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4950 mm (194.9 in)
Width 1970 mm (77.6 in)
Height 1880 mm (74 in)
Related Lexus LX

The Toyota Land Cruiser was redesigned for 2008. Known as the 200 Series, it will share the 2008 Lexus LX's platform and overall design. Toyota presented its completely redesigned LandCruiser in October at the 2007 Australian International Motor Show in Sydney. The vehicle entered production in September and was available for sale in November 2007. Although the new LandCruiser was presented at its first motor show in Sydney, it was already on sale in Japan, launched there in September 2007. It also became available in Venezuela for sale early in November under the local nickname of "Roraima" (Taken from Monte Roraima in Venezuela), The 200 Series is offered in three different levels of trim in Australia and Oceania:

  • GXL
  • VX
  • Sahara

The base GX which was available on the 100 Series is now available on the 70 Series as a 5-door wagon. The 200 Series, offered numerous features and upgrades over its predecessor not limited to the cosmetic changes made to the body and interior, including:

  • Smart Entry - A sensor is triggered when the remote is brought near the vehicle, allowing the user to simply touch the door handle to open it.
  • Smart Start - Start/Stop push button for ignition; a key is not required.
  • 4-zone climate control on Sahara models, with outlet vents increased from 18 to 28
  • 10 airbags (VX & Sahara)
  • Stronger and lighter frame

Various driver assist technologies not offered on previous models including:

Engine and transmission improvements include:

  • An all new optional V8 Diesel engine.
  • Automatic transmission standard across all levels of trim of the 200 Series, 5-speed manual transmission is offered only with the 4.0L GX models (in selected regions). A five-speed automatic gearbox is assigned to the 4.7L petrol models, while the 4.5L diesel models receive a six-speed automatic.

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